Routing in Multi-Modal Underwater Networks: a Throughput-optimal Approach

While acoustic signals are still the main commu-
nication means under water, other technologies are being devel-
oped, e.g., based on optical and radio-frequency electro-magnetic
waves. Each technology has its own advantages and drawbacks
to trade off, e.g., communication range vs. bit rate. Recently, new
approaches are emerging to leverage the advantages of several
underwater technologies by incorporating them in a multi-modal
communication system. In this paper, we address a fundamental
part of these multi-modal systems by proposing a novel routing
protocol for networks of multi-modal nodes. Our protocol makes
distributed optimal and fair decisions about the per-link flow,
prevents bottlenecks, and allows simultaneous transmissions us-
ing multiple technologies in order to advance a packet towards
its destination. We analyze the performance of our protocol via
model-based simulations and compare it to benchmark results.
Our results show that our protocol successfully leverages all
technologies to deliver data, even in the presence of imperfect
topology information.


Roee Diamant, Paolo Casari, Filippo Campagnaro, Michele Zorzi

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